Developmental Editing – What a Novel Idea: Part 1


My Novel Writing & Editing Journey…

I remember when I wrote my very first fiction book – over ten years ago. I was so proud of it. I must have produced about 50,000 words and I could not wait to unleash my ‘masterpiece’ on the world…🖋️

I did actually submit it to one publishing house (this is such a funny story – I might share it one day). I received a standard, polite rejection i.e. “…Keep writing. This story isn’t there just yet…” So, I listened to the advice and continued to write. I even got myself a bunch of writing and editing jobs at various UK based publications. It paid off. Today, I am a much better writer than I was 10 years ago. Although, hopefully, not as good as I will be in 10 years from now… We should never stop growing…

Anyway, the above-mentioned manuscript was the first draft of what could have eventually become a good book. Now I know what I didn’t know then – first drafts are not final products… First drafts are basically writers telling their stories to themselves… Books need to be edited – over and over again. Good writers are re-writers… This post is about what I have learned (so far) while developmentally editing my first novel.

If you’re after non-fiction editing tips – please read my previous post HERE.

Developmental editing is the very first editing level. As the name implies, it is meant to develop the heart of a story. It is about the big picture too. And, it is the most time consuming and labour-intensive editing level. Although, I find it to be quite creative and fun – at least, in fiction.

Most self-published authors do developmental edits themselves because paying someone to do them can be very costly. Plus, most editors in the marketplace are copy-editors. Whereas, those who provide developmental editing services usually do not do the work themselves. They just show the writer where their manuscript falls short and how it can be improved.

Personally, I would not even let anyone make arbitrary changes to my fictional story because it is my story and I am the only one who knows its core. With that said, I did hire an editor… So far, I have used some of her advice as well as a few suggestions by another storyteller whose professional feedback I respect. However, none of them made the changes. Both gave me ideas and showed me where the book (chapter one actually) was not working for them… Some of their advice rang true hence I embraced it and made the changes accordingly. I did touch on that in my other post titled,‘Creative Writing – Novel vs. Non-Fiction vs. Poetry.’

One of the observations my editor made was that my protagonist’s internal conflict was introduced too early and with too much emotional intensity. The reader hadn’t been given enough time to get to know or develop empathy for the character… In consequence, they could not feel nor understand her pain. To fix it, I was advised to take the reader back in time  which I did (with flashbacks). I spent some time introducing the character’s likable personality traits and her emotional motivations too. One suggestion was to take her back to her childhood which I did as well – watch my  brief book reading excerpt here – 1 min video.

I’ve been writing for over ten years and intuitively know when a story is missing something even if I don’t know what it is… yet. But I have not published a novel yet, so apart from working with an editor, I have been researching successful novelists and listening to their teachings on what to pay attention to – during the developmental editing stage. I recommend that you do the same.

Story structure is one of those important things… And, I realised that I needed to re-arrange a few chapters so that the inciting incident can happen when it’s supposed to. According to my brief research, it should occur somewhere within the first 20 – 30 pages of a novel. Right now, mine happens somewhere between pages 40 and 50. Hence, my plan’s to change the order of chapters three and four… It’s a good thing that, although subsequent events must make sense, they don’t have to be introduced in a linear order (again, that’s something that my editor reminded me about).

According to my understanding, the inciting incident is that point in your story (usually an external event) that sets the plot in motion. After it happens, your protagonist’s life changes and it will never be the same, at least not until their problem gets resolved or situation changes. I’ll just use an example we can all relate to now (sadly). If I was writing a novel about the pandemic, my inciting incident might be – a scientist releasing the virus (from a laboratory)… Its release (the inciting incident) causes many deaths, and the world in which my protagonist lives goes into a global lockdown…  

The verb ‘to incite’ means ‘to stir up’ or ‘to encourage’ – it comes from a Latin verb meaning ‘to move into action’… So, the inciting incident forces your protagonists to “spend the rest of the novel” trying to find their way back into the old or a new normal.

The inciting incident doesn’t have to be as dramatic as the above mentioned i.e. nobody has to die. It needn’t even be a negative one, but it should hook the reader by creating conflict, high enough stakes and unanswered questions that set the story in motion like never before. The inciting incident is a big topic amongst novelists. Most of them agree that it should happen asap because if it’s introduced too late readers might lose interest…

Back to my example, if I were writing a fictional story about the outbreak: prior to the incident, I would spend some time introducing my protagonists in their normal environment. But I might also want to leave some clues about the virus’ lethal power while foreshadowing the possibility of its unleashing on the unsuspecting world… All this should be done at the developmental editing stage, at the latest…

So, that is where I am with my novel, now – restructuring, adding, and taking away… And learning a lot, along the way… I am going to write more about my editing journey in part two and maybe even part three. If you’re interested in all that, please do stay tuned… One thing that remains certain about developmental editing is that it is not a novel idea at all. Every book needs it – although some need it more than others do… 🙂

Monika Ribeiro © 2020

 

TV Script Editor Interview – Storytelling


Interview - AmyLights, camera, action! 😂 TV script editor Amy Reith has worked with some of the greatest story minds (arguably) – in various roles – across BBC4’s, Sky One’s and Sky Atlantic’s productions…

What I really like about Amy though is that she’s a sweet and down to earth woman… I’ll let you know how we met (funny story) – in part 2 of the interview… 🙂

Meanwhile, as always, we’ll be chatting about writing and storytelling. Besides, we’ll dive into writing for TV specifically. Without further ado, if you are or aspire to be a writer of any kind or TV script editor maybe, this interview should answer at least some of your ‘how to’ questions. Let’s do this!

M: What’s your academic background? Briefly describe your career progression.

A: I attended the local comprehensive school and then went on to study at the University of Exeter – my course was ‘English and Creative Media’ – which essentially means I changed my mind halfway through the course and they had to make up a title for it!

I studied modules varying from English literature and film theory to creative writing and web design, so it was an interesting mix.

When I graduated, I moved back to my hometown, saved up for a year and then relocated to London. On reflection, it was quite a naïve move. I didn’t have a job, so just temped to pay the bills and hoped I’d eventually get some work in TV or film – thankfully, somehow, (after lots of temp admin jobs to pay the bills…) it paid off!

M: What productions have you worked on so far?

A: My first set of credits are all across documentary shows. The first company I worked for made both drama and documentary projects, so I worked as a production assistant/coordinator across their shows and visited the set of a film they were involved in – Kajaki – in Jordan. Then, I moved over into development where we had a large slate of varied projects. In terms of productions, I worked across shows like the BBC4 comedy Bucket, was in the initial writers’ room for the Sky One show Bulletproof and then worked on Sky Atlantic’s Riviera for seasons 2 and 3. I finished on that at Christmas and started on a new project in January.

M: What was your workday like at Riviera? What does a TV script editor do?

A: One of the best bits about script editing is the variety – depending on where you are in the process, no two days are the same.

Initially, you often have a writers’ room – which usually includes the executive team, story team and writers all working through the characters, themes, storylines etc. Then, once the writers go off to work on their episodes – you become their point of contact, helping them when needed with their outlines, scene-by-scenes and scripts, while also working across any production documents needed – such as writing character bios, series outlines, casting documents etc.

During the drafting process you’re on hand to read the new drafts as they come in, make your own notes, then collate them with notes from the showrunner, execs, producer and director and feed them back to the writer.

Once you get closer to filming, you spend a lot of time liasing with production staff – making sure what the writers are working on fits with the schedule, locations and budget. I’ve also spent time on tech recces, which is really useful to get a feel for the geography and layout of the locations and understand what the director is planning in terms of their blocking for each scene.

Once you’re in production, you’re usually working on the drafts of future episodes while also covering amendments to the scenes being filmed and issuing these out to the coordinator for distribution. A lot of the time you’re based in the office of the production company running the show but once it’s filming, you’re often back and forth to the production office and locations.

M: On that note, some of those are quite fancy. Reportedly, Riviera season 2 was filmed in various locations such as Monaco and Nice as well as Alpes-Maritimes in the South of France – with many recognisable landmarks in the background. 🙂

 M: What are the most and the least enjoyable bits of the script editor role?

For me, each stage has its enjoyable moments and its challenges – the initial storylining process is usually the most freeing and creative, but can also feel like it moves slower than you’d like, while the adrenaline of filming is exciting and invigorating, but often the busiest and most stressful stage of the job.

M: How many writers did you manage? What are the main challenges of creating stories with a team of writers?

A: Across both seasons of Riviera, we had five writers working on the show. I’d say in the early stages of storylining, the biggest challenge is making sure that everyone’s ideas align with the tone and voice of the show. All of the writers we worked with are brilliant in their own right, and have strong, powerful voices on the page, so helping them find the right pitch for the show so that it doesn’t feel disjointed is the initial goal. But, thankfully, they’re all total pros, so this was never a big problem!

Once you get into the scripting process, it’s not really a challenge, but one of the most important things I do early on is work out how each writer works. Some people like to discuss their episode then go away and work independently until they’re ready to deliver. Some will discuss it, go away and then touch base sporadically until the deadline, while some like to keep a more regular contact, batting questions and ideas back and forth. My job is to be on hand for them – so I can adjust to any rhythm once I know what they prefer.

M: What part of writing/storytelling can be, and which one cannot be taught?

A: I think there’s elements of the craft that can be taught – from the basic stuff like learning how to use Final Draft and the correct layout to knowing how to write a scene-by-scene etc, but I believe a lot of writing and storytelling comes from instinct.

Just getting a feeling for what works, what doesn’t, what excites you and the people you’re working with versus what doesn’t. Millions of books have been written about storytelling – and most of them completely contradict each other.

I don’t think there’s one format that should be adhered to, and we’re lucky enough that in the current TV market, people are getting braver about diverting from previous structures imposed on shows.

M: What are the main lessons you’ve learned while working on TV productions (i.e. on storytelling e.g. how to weave a good  story, etc.)? 

A: Working in development and as a script editor has, I think, been the absolute best place to learn story and structure. Personally, with my own writing, I’ve always found the precise intricacies of plotting – the logic, the pacing etc. – the hardest part, so having had the opportunity to work with some really brilliant story minds has been invaluable. You quickly learn what works, what doesn’t, what is overused and what feels original.

Also, just watching how different people work – whether it be executive producers, story producers, fellow script editors or writers. I find it fascinating to see the way everyone’s ideas develop and the methods they use for structuring a story.

In TV, I find there’s an interesting balance between creativity and the actual craft of making a show. The former is essential, but when you are constantly working to deadlines, schedules and notes from varying quarters, it’s also about finding a way to get the scripts ready to shoot without compromising on the creativity.

M: What advice would you give to people who want to write for TV? Where should they begin?

A: Having asked this question many times, I know how frustrating it is when people just say ‘write’ – as if just writing your own material will suddenly get it seen and get you a job. It usually makes me irrationally angry to hear it, but I’m going to become what I hate, because I do recommend writing as much as you can in your spare time – not because it will get you work – but because it really is a case of the more you write, the better you become.

Everyone’s route into writing for TV is different – some come from editorial, some juggle writing with directing/producing, a lot are playwrights who move across. For me though, I think working as part of a story/editorial team is invaluable experience – so the first step to this is to become a researcher/assistant script editor. As far as I know, long running dramas in the UK usually hire people on 6-month fixed contracts, so advertise quite regularly for roles like this. Similarly working in development is also really useful as you work across a large slate of projects, so see ideas and shows at their inception, and get to work with a varied set of writers.

M: How do you recognise a writer’s style? How can one find/understand their unique voice?

A: I always love chatting with writers for the first time and finding out what they’re interested in. Often, people who write lots of episodes of TV can adapt their voice and tone for the show they’re working on, they’ve become pros at it, but diving in and finding out what they really are interested in is fascinating.

I mean, usually people always seem to want to write much darker things than they’re currently working on (take from that what you will…!) You can, often, tell quickly whether people skew towards wanting to find the heart of a piece, or the action and excitement, the comedy or the tragedy.

M: How does one know which area of writing to pursue?

A: I think the best thing to do is try everything – try writing a novel,try poetry, try screenwriting or writing a play, try articles, reviews, find what works and what doesn’t and don’t feel like you have to settle for just one thing.

M: What makes a good writer?

A: There’s so many different answers to this question, but I think at the heart of it, it’s about connecting with what you’re writing.

Whether you’re writing a novel that inspires escapism, a specific genre of TV show, a gritty, realistic film or something more avant-garde, if you’re not getting something back from writing – enjoyment, catharsis, or anything else, then it’s hard to get something on the page that people will associate with.

To be continued…✍🏽

Manuscript Editing Tips – Nonfiction


Nonfiction Manuscript Editing

Nonfiction manuscript editing can be challenging if you aren’t sure what to look out for. Yet, the better your manuscript is before you pass it onto a book editor the better the final product will be.

So, where should you start self-editing?

Structure

Focus on story structure, its clarity and flow. For example, when I edit my articles or blog posts, I want every paragraph to be a logical follow up to the previous one. The same goes for chapters, etc. Moving from one concept to another should make logical sense… When drafting, I’m not too concerned about what goes where. Drafting is a little like scattering your puzzles on the floor. Editing is like getting rid of the puzzles that belong to another set, finding those that got misplaced and then putting the right puzzles in the right places…

Rhythm

Read your writing out loud and hear what it sounds like. When you find problems with its rhythm you will be able to make the changes you need to make. Better yet, get someone else to read your story out loud and see if and where they get stuck or lose the plot…

Verbs

When self-editing, pay attention to verbs like ‘is’, ‘was’, ‘has’, ‘had’, ‘can’, etc. They get overused and they’re not the most descriptive. I tend to google word synonyms to find more descriptive ways of saying what I want to say. You can use a dictionary too. The bottom line is – we don’t like non-descriptive words and we don’t want to repeat the same words over and over and over again.

Simplify

I keep having to remind myself the K.I.S.S. formula (keep it simple, stupid). If you’re naturally inclined to long-winded writing, you will understand this strange tendency to use 10 words in order to write 5-word sentences… Oops! I’ve just done it here. Anyways, “long-windedness” can be a good thing, sometimes. E.g. when you want to slow down the pacing of a novel to accomplish a specific goal like building suspension (for instance). However, in non-fiction – within this context, less is usually more. So, do remember to K.I.S.S.

On this note, you may have read one of my recent posts about publisher/editor Barbara Campbell (by whom I was trained). “I remember proudly presenting my first feature to her. It was embellished – quite “flowery”. She cut so much out. I got upset thinking she took my soul out of the piece. I then showed it to my friend who had read the original. She didn’t hesitate to tell me that Barbara’s pen made it better. Quote by me, Voice Newspaper Online.

Typos, Spelling and Grammar Mistakes

I won’t talk about them much because we all know that they must go. So, look out for well-known baddies such as typos, spelling and grammar errors. Goal: eradicate as many baddies as you can.

Writing might be an art not a science, but editing is… both. The final goal of manuscript editing is to produce a great read that’s tailored to industry standards. If you’re writing a book, I recommend that you hire a book editor. Even the best writers “commit” typos and “abuse” sentences, sometimes. Plus, you can’t see what you can’t see…

When you have done all that you can let a good editor help you do the rest… Keep reading to learn about different levels of professional editing. This info should help you decide what book editing services your manuscript requires.

Developmental editing

The very first level of editing is developmental editing which comes before copy editing and proofreading (the last two are not the same). As the name implies, developmental editing is meant to develop the core of your story. It is the most time consuming and labour-intensive part of the editing process. Developmental editing considers your audience and/or target market. Many self-published authors do developmental edits themselves because paying someone to do them can be costly. Plus, most editors are copy editors who don’t do developmental work. However, a good editor should be able to give you developmental guidance and offer suggestions on how to develop your manuscript before moving onto the next stage…

Copy editing

Line and copy editing are about the language. Quite often, non-fiction is written to impart knowledge and/or convey a message. Typos and grammatical mistakes will impact on your reader’s confidence in your knowledge (even if writing isn’t your area of expertise). Hence, copy editing is necessary to help your manuscript stand out.

Proofreading

Proofreading should come at the very end of editing process – when all other changes have been made. It is not the proof-reader’s job to correct your story structure. They are after missed typos, punctuation, misspellings, bad grammar and/or other language mistakes e.g. UK vs. US English, etc.

So, usually that would be it. However, there’s one other level of editing that’s not commonly known but is worth mentioning (I think). This one too should come long before proofreading, of course.

Sensitivity editing

I’ve recently had a consultation with a potential client. During our consultation, I discovered that he had a decent message. However, the audience whom he was trying to reach did not want to hear it… I believe that’s because he conveyed it without sensitivity to their culture and understanding of life. Sensitivity editors search for unintentional misrepresentations, bias, racism, and/or stereotypes. Sometimes, they’re called diversity editors. Oh, how we need them…

So, I hope this helps you self-edit your nonfiction manuscript with a lot more confidence – word by word, page by page and chapter by chapter. If you are looking for a good nonfiction editor, however, feel free to contact me at monika@monikaribeiro.net

Finally, I have a treat for you 🙂 – an expert interview with a TV script editor! She has worked with BBC4, Sky One, Sky Atlantic and other visual storytelling pros. We will be talking about script and novel writing, editing, storytelling, etc. Coming up next… So, please stay tuned.